24 Best Things to Do in Bronx, New York

Top Destinations Oct 2, 2023

Nestled in the northernmost part of New York City lies the Bronx, a borough brimming with cultural vitality, historical significance, and an indomitable spirit. Often overshadowed by the glitz of Manhattan or the hip vibe of Brooklyn, the Bronx boasts its own distinct character, deeply rooted in its rich tapestry of immigrant communities, pioneering art scenes, and landmark institutions. From the echoing beats of hip hop that originated in its streets to the lush expanses of its parks and gardens, the Bronx offers a diverse and dynamic experience that stands as a testament to New York's multifaceted identity.

Exploring the Enchanting Wave Hill Garden & Cultural Center

Nestled alongside the Hudson River, the Wave Hill Garden & Cultural Center is a spectacular urban oasis in the heart of the Bronx. This 28-acre public garden and cultural center is dedicated to connecting people with the natural environment. As you walk its manicured paths, you'll encounter a diverse range of gardens — from vibrant flower beds to serene aquatic gardens and lush woodlands.

One of Wave Hill's signature features is its meticulously designed conservatory, home to tropical, desert, and Mediterranean plants. Alongside its plant displays, the conservatory hosts various educational programs, allowing visitors to immerse themselves in the world of botany and environmental science.

The Pergola, an iconic spot in Wave Hill, provides visitors with breathtaking views of the Palisades and the Hudson River. It's a perfect spot for photography enthusiasts or anyone wanting a moment of serenity amidst nature. Throughout the year, Wave Hill offers a multitude of programs, including nature walks, wellness activities, and family workshops, ensuring a dynamic experience for every visit.

Source: Wave Hill

Discovering Creativity at the Bronx Museum of Art

Situated in the heart of the Bronx's Grand Concourse, the Bronx Museum of Art is a beacon of contemporary art and cultural expression. Established in 1971, the museum boasts a mission to bridge the gap between diverse audiences and the world of contemporary art. It champions artists of African, Asian, and Latin American descent, ensuring representation and inclusivity in the art world.

A visit to the Bronx Museum of Art presents an opportunity to explore a dynamic range of exhibitions, from cutting-edge contemporary pieces to thought-provoking installations. The museum's permanent collection is particularly noteworthy, housing over 2,000 artworks spanning various media and subjects.

Beyond its captivating exhibits, the Bronx Museum of Art is a hub for community engagement. It organizes numerous public programs, including artist talks, film screenings, and educational workshops. These events foster a sense of community and encourage dialogues around art, culture, and society. The museum's architecture itself is a modern masterpiece, with its spacious and light-filled interiors offering an inviting environment for art enthusiasts and curious visitors alike.

Source: Artnet News

Journeying Along the Bronx River by Paddle

The Bronx River is the only freshwater river in New York City, and it offers residents and visitors a unique opportunity to engage with nature right in the heart of the urban jungle. Paddling along this waterway, one can discover the city from a new perspective, observing wildlife, green landscapes, and historical landmarks.

This 23-mile river begins in Westchester and flows through the Bronx, providing a peaceful escape from the bustling city streets. Organizations like the Bronx River Alliance offer canoeing and kayaking trips, allowing enthusiasts and beginners alike to explore the river safely.

While paddling, you can spot diverse habitats, from tidal salt marshes to freshwater wetlands. The river is also home to numerous species of fish, birds, and even the occasional beaver! Alongside its natural beauty, the Bronx River boasts rich history. The Waterwheels, remnants of the industrial age, and the various bridges that cross the river, tell stories of bygone eras.

The Lit Bar: A Beacon of Literature and Community

Nestled in the heart of the Bronx, The Lit Bar is much more than just a bookstore. It's a community space, a hub for cultural exchange, and a testament to the power of resilience and dreams. Founded by Noëlle Santos, The Lit Bar came into existence in response to the closing of the borough's last bookstore. Noëlle's vision was not just to open another bookstore but to create a space where literature meets wine and community thrives.

The shelves of The Lit Bar are lined with a diverse selection of books, reflecting the multicultural fabric of the Bronx. From bestsellers to indie gems, there's something for everyone. The store places a special emphasis on promoting authors of color, providing a platform for voices often marginalized in mainstream literary circles.

Beyond its literary offerings, The Lit Bar is also a wine bar, allowing patrons to sip on a curated selection of wines as they dive into their latest reads. The store regularly hosts events, readings, and discussions, turning it into a vibrant hub for dialogue and celebration of the written word. A visit to The Lit Bar is a celebration of the power of books, community, and the indomitable spirit of the Bronx.

Source: Curbed NY

Starlight Park: An Urban Oasis in the Bronx

Spanning 13 acres, Starlight Park is a verdant sanctuary amidst the bustling neighborhoods of the Bronx. Located along the Bronx River, this revitalized park has transformed over the years, from an amusement park in the 1920s to the thriving recreational space it is today.

The park is an epicenter of activities, whether you're in the mood for a leisurely walk or looking to engage in more rigorous sports. With soccer fields, basketball courts, and playgrounds, there's something for everyone. The park’s riverside location also makes it an ideal spot for waterfront activities. The Bronx River Greenway, a part of the park, offers an excellent path for bikers and joggers, giving them the chance to explore the natural beauty of the riverbanks.

Beyond recreational amenities, Starlight Park often plays host to community events, educational programs, and outdoor concerts, making it a lively and essential hub for community gatherings and celebrations.

Bronx Brewery: Savoring Craft Beers in the Boogie Down

Situated in the South Bronx, the Bronx Brewery is a testament to the ever-evolving and dynamic spirit of this iconic borough. Since its inception, the brewery has been brewing handcrafted beers that pay homage to the diverse and rich history of the Bronx.

Walking into the Bronx Brewery, visitors are greeted with an atmosphere that seamlessly blends industrial aesthetics with cozy, rustic charm. The heart of the brewery, the taproom, offers a rotating selection of seasonal and core beers, ensuring that there's a pint for every palate. Whether you’re a fan of a crisp pale ale or have a penchant for a robust porter, you're in for a treat.

But the Bronx Brewery experience isn't just limited to tasting beers. They offer behind-the-scenes brewery tours, where enthusiasts can learn about the intricate brewing process, the ingredients used, and the stories behind their unique brews.

Adding to its allure, the brewery boasts a spacious backyard, perfect for enjoying a chilled beer on a sunny day, often accompanied by live music or DJ sets. The brewery is not just a place to savor craft beers but also a space that celebrates community, creativity, and the vibrant culture of the Bronx.

Source: FourSquare

Bronx Night Market: A Culinary Adventure After Dusk

In the shadows of the iconic Yankee Stadium lies an evening escapade that is fast becoming the Bronx's gastronomic heartbeat: The Bronx Night Market. An embodiment of the borough's multicultural vibrancy, the market is a melting pot of flavors, aromas, and culinary traditions.

As dusk settles, rows of stalls light up, each offering a unique taste adventure. From mouth-watering empanadas and succulent jerk chicken to vegan delights and Asian delicacies, the Bronx Night Market represents over 40 countries through its diverse vendors. It's a testament to New York City's rich tapestry of cultures, all congregating in one delightful culinary setting.

But it's not just about food. The market is also a platform for local artisans, musicians, and designers, making it a holistic showcase of Bronx creativity. With live performances setting the backdrop for your gastronomic journey, the ambiance is electric, spirited, and community-driven.

La Morada Oaxacan Restaurant: A Taste of Oaxaca in the Bronx

Hidden in the heart of the South Bronx, La Morada is more than just a restaurant—it's a culinary and cultural experience that transports diners straight to the heart of Oaxaca, Mexico. Run by a passionate Oaxacan family, the restaurant has gained renown for its authentic dishes, rich flavors, and unwavering commitment to social justice.

Walking into La Morada, you're instantly embraced by its warm, rustic interiors, reminiscent of a traditional Oaxacan home. The walls, adorned with indigenous art and political literature, tell stories of resistance, migration, and hope.

The menu is a reflection of Oaxaca's rich culinary heritage. Whether it's the complex, layered flavors of their mole sauces (of which they boast several varieties) or the hand-pressed blue corn tortillas filled with a myriad of fillings, every dish is a labor of love. Ingredients are sourced ethically, with an emphasis on organic and locally-produced items.

Beyond its culinary offerings, La Morada is also a haven for community activism. It serves as a community space, hosting events, workshops, and discussions centered on immigrant rights and social justice. Dining here is not just a treat for the palate but also a journey into the heart of Oaxacan culture and the spirit of the Bronx.

Source: Forbes

Pelham Bay Park: The Bronx's Sprawling Green Sanctuary

When one thinks of New York City parks, Central Park often takes the spotlight. However, Pelham Bay Park, located in the northeast corner of the Bronx, holds the title as the city's largest public park—over three times the size of Central Park. This expansive natural haven offers an array of recreational activities, landscapes, and historical sites, making it an essential visit for both residents and tourists.

The park's diverse landscape boasts salt marshes, forests, and meadows. Orchard Beach, often dubbed the 'Bronx Riviera', is a popular draw, especially during the summer months, providing a refreshing urban beach experience. The park is also home to two golf courses, playgrounds, and a plethora of trails for hiking, horseback riding, and biking.

History enthusiasts will be enthralled with the park's remnants of the past. The Pell Mansion and the Bartow-Pell Mansion Museum transport visitors back to the 19th century, offering insights into the region's colonial history.

Admire Villa Charlotte Bronte: An Architectural Gem in the Bronx

Perched atop a cliff overlooking the Hudson River, the Villa Charlotte Bronte is one of the Bronx's hidden architectural treasures. This enchanting co-op, named after the famed British author, exudes a fairy-tale-like charm, making it a standout amidst the Spuyten Duyvil landscape.

Built in 1926, the Villa is a testament to the Tudor Revival architectural style. Its stucco walls, steeply pitched roofs, and intricate wooden details create an old-world allure that contrasts beautifully with the modern skyline of Manhattan across the river.

The Villa's position offers residents and onlookers breathtaking views of the Hudson, the Palisades, and the Harlem River. The building itself is woven with pathways, gardens, and terraces, providing serene spots to admire the panoramic vistas.

While not open to the general public, the exterior of Villa Charlotte Bronte is worth a visit for architecture and history buffs. The building serves as a poignant reminder of the Bronx's rich architectural diversity and its storied past, making it an essential point of interest in the borough's tapestry of landmarks.

Source: Curbed

Little Italy (Arthur Avenue): The Real Taste of Italy in the Bronx

When people hear 'Little Italy' in New York, their minds often jump to the iconic neighborhood in Manhattan. However, those in the know will tell you that the Bronx's Little Italy, centered around Arthur Avenue, is where the true Italian-American heart beats strongest.

Stepping onto Arthur Avenue is like taking a walk through an old-world Italian marketplace. The air is rich with the aroma of freshly baked bread, aged cheeses, cured meats, and strong espresso. Family-owned shops, some operating for generations, line the street, each offering authentic Italian goods and delicacies. From the hand-rolled cigars of Mario's to the delectable pastries of Madonia Brothers Bakery, every establishment tells a tale of tradition, passion, and culinary excellence.

Beyond shopping, Arthur Avenue boasts an array of restaurants and trattorias where the flavors of Italy come alive. Fresh pasta, Neapolitan pizzas, and classic Italian dishes are prepared with age-old recipes and served with a side of warmth and hospitality.

Visiting Arthur Avenue isn't just about savoring Italian cuisine; it's an immersion into a vibrant cultural community that has preserved its traditions and values despite the changing times.

Chocobar Cortés: A Chocolate Lover's Dream

In the realm of sweet indulgence, Chocobar Cortés stands as a testament to the rich history and art of chocolate-making. Rooted in a family legacy that traces back to the 1920s in Puerto Rico, Chocobar Cortés brings the Caribbean's chocolate delights to the forefront.

The establishment is not just a typical chocolate shop; it's a holistic chocolate experience. At its core, Chocobar Cortés serves as a tribute to cacao, offering a menu that seamlessly weaves this beloved ingredient into both savory and sweet dishes. From chocolate-infused beverages and artisanal bonbons to chocolate-coated churros and unique main courses that incorporate cacao, the culinary creations here are both innovative and delectable.

The ambiance of Chocobar Cortés complements its offerings. With decor that pays homage to the cacao plantations and the rich history of chocolate production, visitors are transported to a world where cacao reigns supreme.

For those passionate about the art of chocolate-making, Chocobar Cortés often hosts workshops and tasting sessions, providing an in-depth look into the world of chocolate.

Source: Bronx Times

Universal Hip Hop Museum: Celebrating Hip Hop's Storied Legacy

Tucked away in the Bronx, the birthplace of hip hop, the Universal Hip Hop Museum stands as a tribute to a genre that reshaped global music and culture. More than just a museum, this space serves as a living testament to hip hop's evolution, its icons, and its profound influence on society.

From its modest beginnings at neighborhood block parties to its ascent as a dominant global musical genre, hip hop's journey is chronicled through immersive exhibits, multimedia displays, and rare memorabilia. Visitors can explore the stories of legendary figures like Grandmaster Flash, DJ Kool Herc, and Afrika Bambaataa, as well as the subsequent artists who carried the torch.

Interactive experiences, from DJ booths to graffiti stations, allow guests to dive hands-on into the elements of hip hop—MCing, DJing, breakdancing, and graffiti art. Regular events, workshops, and performances ensure that the museum remains a dynamic hub, not just a static showcase.

New York Botanical Garden: A Lush Escape in the Concrete Jungle

Nestled within the Bronx, the New York Botanical Garden (NYBG) offers a serene and verdant respite from the urban sprawl of New York City. Spanning 250 acres, this botanical haven is home to over one million living plants, making it one of the premier plant conservation institutions globally.

Each visit to the NYBG is a journey through diverse ecosystems. Wander through the lush rainforest in the Enid A. Haupt Conservatory, explore the expansive native plant garden, or traverse the peaceful woodland paths. Seasonal exhibits, like the Orchid Show or the Holiday Train Show, infuse the gardens with timely beauty and allure.

Beyond its visual delights, the NYBG is a center of plant research, education, and conservation. The Mertz Library, one of the world's largest botanical libraries, and the state-of-the-art Plant Research Laboratory underscore the Garden's commitment to advancing botanical knowledge.

With regularly scheduled workshops, tours, and family-friendly programs, the New York Botanical Garden is more than just a visual feast. It's an ever-evolving exploration of the plant kingdom, a sanctuary for nature lovers, and a testament to the importance of green spaces in urban environments.

Source: NYC Tourism

Thain Family Forest: A Timeless Woodland in the Heart of the City

The Thain Family Forest, located within the renowned New York Botanical Garden, stands as a testament to the primordial beauty of nature. As the city's oldest untouched forest, it offers visitors a rare glimpse into the pre-colonial landscape of New York. With its sprawling trees, winding Bronx River, and cascading waterfalls, the forest is a sanctuary of tranquility amidst the urban hustle.

The diversity of habitats within the Thain Family Forest ensures it remains a haven for wildlife. Birds, amphibians, and myriad insect species find refuge in its dense canopy and shimmering waters. Several trails crisscross the forest, each providing a unique vantage point from which to admire its natural splendor.

Regularly scheduled guided tours and programs allow visitors to delve deeper into the forest's ecological significance, its role in the urban environment, and the ongoing conservation efforts to protect it. For anyone seeking solace, inspiration, or simply a connection to the primal world, the Thain Family Forest is a timeless treasure.

Van Cortlandt Park: The Bronx's Green Playground

Covering over 1,146 acres, Van Cortlandt Park stands as the third-largest park in New York City and the crown jewel of the Bronx's green spaces. A mosaic of meadows, forests, lakes, and wetlands, the park has long been a favorite escape for residents seeking recreation, relaxation, and respite.

For the athletically inclined, Van Cortlandt offers a myriad of sports facilities—from its iconic cross-country course, loved by runners, to golf courses, baseball fields, and tennis courts. The park's extensive trail system, including the Putnam Trail, invites hikers, joggers, and bikers to explore its varied landscapes.

History buffs will appreciate the Van Cortlandt House Museum, the city's oldest surviving house, which offers insights into the colonial history and the park's storied past. The park also boasts several freshwater lakes, perfect for fishing or simply reflecting by their serene waters.

Community-driven events, from concerts to farmer's markets, ensure that Van Cortlandt Park remains a vibrant and essential hub for the Bronx's residents.

Source: Wikipedia

Walk the High Bridge: Connecting Boroughs, Bridging Histories

Once an aqueduct, now a pedestrian walkway, the High Bridge stands as a historical marvel that connects Manhattan and the Bronx over the Harlem River. Reopened to the public in 2015 after extensive restorations, the bridge provides a unique vantage point from which to view the city's contrasting landscapes.

As you stroll across this oldest standing bridge in New York City, it's hard not to be swept up in its historical resonance. Built in the mid-19th century, the bridge played a crucial role in delivering fresh water to Manhattan. Today, it serves as a testament to innovative engineering and a symbol of unity between boroughs.

From the bridge, panoramic views of the Harlem River, adjacent parks, and the distant city skyline unfold. Benches along the way allow for quiet reflection and opportunities to soak in the scenery. A walk on the High Bridge is not just about traversing from one point to another; it's a journey through history, community, and breathtaking urban vistas.

Bronx Documentary Center: Chronicles of Reality Through Lenses

Nestled in the heart of the South Bronx, the Bronx Documentary Center (BDC) stands as a beacon for photojournalism, documentary film, and new media. Established as a non-profit gallery and educational space, the BDC is committed to showcasing thought-provoking content that delves into critical issues, local stories, and global narratives.

Rotating exhibitions feature the works of renowned photojournalists and emerging talents, ensuring that visitors are continually exposed to fresh perspectives. These visual stories often touch upon themes of social justice, conflict, and community, prompting introspection and dialogue.

Beyond its exhibitions, the BDC plays a pivotal role in nurturing the next generation of storytellers. Through workshops, lectures, and youth programs, the center equips budding photographers and filmmakers with the skills, knowledge, and platforms to share their unique visions.

A visit to the Bronx Documentary Center is more than an appreciation of visual artistry. It's an invitation to engage with real stories, confront societal issues, and celebrate the power of documentary to inspire change.

Source: Bronx Documentary Center

Edgar Allan Poe’s Cottage: A Glimpse into the Life of a Literary Genius

In the quiet corner of the Bronx stands a humble cottage that once housed one of America's most iconic writers, Edgar Allan Poe. This preserved historical site offers a window into the last years of Poe’s tumultuous life and the space where he penned some of his memorable works.

While the cottage is a far cry from the dark, gothic settings typically associated with Poe's stories, it provides a unique contrast, allowing visitors to see the man behind the macabre tales. The rooms, restored to their 19th-century appearance, are filled with period furniture, some of which belonged to Poe himself.

It was in this very cottage that Poe wrote masterpieces such as "Annabel Lee" and "The Bells." Though his time here was marked by personal tragedy, including the death of his wife Virginia, the space serves as a testament to his enduring spirit and literary genius.

Guided tours provide insights into Poe's life, his family, and his creative process. For literary enthusiasts and history buffs alike, Edgar Allan Poe’s Cottage offers a touching and intimate exploration of a brilliant mind's final years.

Woodlawn Cemetery: A Pantheon of History and Art

Sprawling over 400 acres in the Bronx, Woodlawn Cemetery is not just a final resting place but a living museum of history, culture, and art. Established in 1863, this National Historic Landmark is the eternal home to countless luminaries, from artists and writers to industrialists and civil rights leaders.

Walking through Woodlawn is akin to strolling through a sculpted garden. The cemetery boasts some of the finest funerary art in the nation, with grand mausoleums, ornate monuments, and intricate statues dotting its landscape. Esteemed architects and artisans, driven by the memorialization ideals of the Gilded Age, crafted these masterpieces.

The list of notable interments reads like a who's who of American history. Here, you'll find the graves of figures like Herman Melville, Duke Ellington, Joseph Pulitzer, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, among others.

Regularly scheduled tours delve into various themes, from the cemetery's rich history to its architectural marvels. Special events, lectures, and concerts further underscore Woodlawn's role as a cultural institution. More than a mere cemetery, Woodlawn stands as a testament to the legacies left behind and the artistry with which they are remembered.

Source: Wikipedia

Bronx Historical Tours: A Journey Through Time and Culture

To truly understand the essence of the Bronx, one must delve into its rich tapestry of history, and there's no better way to do so than through the Bronx Historical Tours. These guided journeys whisk participants through the varied epochs and narratives that have shaped this iconic borough.

The tours cover a wide array of topics. From the Revolutionary War landmarks to the birthplaces of hip-hop, from the grandeur of historic mansions to tales of immigrant communities, each tour is meticulously curated to provide a comprehensive and engaging experience. As participants navigate the streets, parks, and neighborhoods, stories of the past come alive, painting a vivid picture of the Bronx's transformation over the centuries.

Guides, often locals with a personal connection to the borough, infuse their narratives with personal anecdotes, cultural insights, and lesser-known tidbits. For both newcomers and Bronx natives, these tours offer a fresh and enlightening perspective on a place teeming with stories waiting to be told.

Yankee Stadium: The Cathedral of Baseball

In the world of sports, few venues are as iconic as Yankee Stadium. Located in the heart of the Bronx, this monumental structure is synonymous with baseball excellence, having housed one of the most successful sports franchises in history, the New York Yankees.

Since its inaugural opening in 1923 and its modern reconstruction in 2009, Yankee Stadium has witnessed countless moments of athletic brilliance, from Babe Ruth's legendary home runs to Derek Jeter's iconic plays. The stadium's halls echo with tales of World Series victories, legendary players, and unforgettable games.

But it's not just about baseball. Yankee Stadium has evolved into a multifaceted entertainment venue, hosting concerts, soccer matches, and even hockey games. Its grand architecture, combined with state-of-the-art amenities, ensures a memorable experience for all attendees.

Tours of the stadium provide behind-the-scenes access to places like the dugout, locker rooms, and Monument Park, where plaques and retired numbers honor the greats who've graced its field. For sports enthusiasts and history buffs alike, a visit to Yankee Stadium is a pilgrimage to the epicenter of baseball lore.

Source: Pxful

Bartow-Pell Mansion Museum: A Portal to 19th-Century Elegance

Perched gracefully within the lush landscapes of Pelham Bay Park, the Bartow-Pell Mansion Museum stands as a testament to the grandeur of 19th-century life in the Bronx. Constructed in the Greek Revival style during the 1830s, the mansion offers visitors a chance to step back in time and immerse themselves in a bygone era of opulence.

Upon entering, one is immediately struck by the meticulous preservation of the mansion's interiors—from its ornate parlors and chambers adorned with period-appropriate furniture and decor, to its beautifully crafted details, such as intricate moldings and exquisite carvings. Each room narrates a different chapter of the mansion’s storied past and the lives of its inhabitants.

Surrounding the mansion are magnificently manicured gardens, which further transport visitors to a time of leisurely garden parties and tranquil afternoon strolls. The carriage house, another significant structure on the property, offers insights into the transportation norms of the era.

Regular tours, events, and educational programs at the Bartow-Pell Mansion Museum ensure a multi-faceted experience, illuminating both the architectural brilliance and the socio-cultural nuances of 19th-century New York.

Port Morris Distillery: Sip on the Spirit of the Bronx

In the industrial-chic enclave of Port Morris, a unique distillery echoes with the vibrant spirit of the Bronx and the Caribbean. Port Morris Distillery, founded by Bronx natives, brings to life the traditional drink of Puerto Rico: Pitorro, often referred to as Puerto Rican moonshine.

Visiting the distillery is an experience that tantalizes all the senses. From the aromatic waft of fermenting fruits and spices to the warm, rustic ambiance of its interiors, every element speaks to the distillery’s roots and passion. The highlight, of course, is the tasting sessions where one can sample various flavors of Pitorro, from the traditional unaged variant to those infused with flavors like coconut, apple, and more.

The founders’ commitment to maintaining authenticity ensures that every batch of Pitorro captures the essence of its Puerto Rican origins. Simultaneously, their innovative flair results in unique, limited-edition blends that offer a fresh take on this traditional spirit.

Beyond tastings, the distillery frequently hosts events, live music, and community gatherings, solidifying its reputation as a cultural hub. A visit to Port Morris Distillery is not just about savoring a drink; it’s about celebrating a fusion of histories, communities, and flavors.

Source: AmNewYork

Conclusion

In the heart of the city that never sleeps, the Bronx pulses with an energy that's both raw and refined, encapsulating the essence of resilience, creativity, and community. Whether through its iconic attractions, like the Yankee Stadium and the Bronx Zoo, or its lesser-known gems that await the curious traveler, the borough leaves an indelible mark on all who venture its avenues. As the birthplace of movements and a home to history-makers, the Bronx remains an essential chapter in the grand narrative of New York City, beckoning all to discover and celebrate its myriad stories.

Tags

Emily Carter

With over 10 years of experience, Emily has extensive experience planning bespoke tours across the United States and Canada, specializing in eco-tourism and adventure travel.